Tygerberg Nature Reserve: a conspicuous absence of tigers

With cloudy skies to start this springtime Saturday, Natasha and I resolved to visit the nearby Tygerberg Nature Reserve for a much-delayed hike!  Since the trails do not offer much shade, an overcast day seemed just right for our stroll.  We approached the Reserve from the east, so our path led by the Welgemoed neighborhood, one of the notable security estates in this area.  The grounds of the Bellville Golf Club provided a nice, green background for our drive up the foothills.  As we gained altitude, the property values escalated, as well, with the final row of houses against the Reserve perimeter sufficiently opulent to qualify as micro-mansions.

From my previous comments about the Tygerberg Hills, you might recall that the name of the hills comes from the patchwork of small bumps (heuweltjies) on these hills that become visible in summer time.  After we parked in the Reserve’s tight parking lot, we entered for a mere R15 per person (approximately one USD).  A signboard we found upon entry explained the layout of the trails in the Reserve.  I was keen to see the highest point of the hills, and so Natasha and I headed uphill to the Watsonia trail (2.7 km).  We joined the trail at its southern end, a small grove of pine trees creating a shady spot with picnic tables.  I’ve seen these trees from the N1 a hundred times, so it was a treat to rest there a moment.  This grove offers really nice viewing for my place of work, the Tygerberg Hospital campus.


The white complex is SUN FHMS, where I work. The yellow brick building is Tygerberg Hospital.

I was sad to see that the trees had been affected by the pine pitch canker.  As non-indigenous trees, the pines are not the best option for this Reserve, but I always feel sentimental about dying trees.


They cannot muzzle me so easily!

In no time flat, Natasha had charged up the hill to the highest peak in the Tygerberg Hills (it’s quite close to the Southern end of the Watsonia trail).  Once we reached the top, we found a canon that dates from 1723.  It had been used to call Western Cape forces to its defense on four different occasions (twice in 1781, once in 1795, and once in 1806).  Because of the overcast, the view from the peak was not quite as clear as it might have been.  Assembling a 360 degree panorama is not really possible due to the large radio masts at the crest.  As we gazed toward Table Mountain, Natasha observed that the city must be getting plenty of rain from the clouds blanketing the plateau.

We followed the Watsonia trail toward the north, taking a swing to the east as it descended the slope.  On the northern face, we saw massive meadows of tall grass.  Natasha reminded me that the hills had been preferred grazing grounds for the Khoi people of the Western Cape during the early years of the Cape Colony.  One can certainly see fynbos in the Tygerberg Hills, but the plants are a different selection than one would see on the slopes or top of Table Mountain, in part due to less rain.  In fact, Tygerberg is one of the largest remaining areas where one can see the Swartland Shale Renosterveld.


The Watsonia trail came to an abrupt end at its intersection with the Honey Badger and Grey Rhebok trails.  We decided to follow the latter as it would loop back to the main drag after giving us a chance to explore the eastern slopes.  This walk led us down dirt trails that were considerably less established than the wide Watsonia.  Natasha was delighted in the tiny blooms she spotted next to the trail.  One flower she identified was the endangered Chincherinchee.  This one’s blooms had not fully opened.



We continued down the slope to the boundary fence.  We paused beside a little pool abutting Kanonnier Crescent.  I realized I was not far from the home of my friend Gerard!  As we were walking past the back yards of many homes, we considered their landscaping.  Some homes in this area have made little English gardens, and others have created water-wise plots that use indigenous flowers.  We saw cottages and more modern designs along the boundary.  We were concerned to see swimming pools without covers (not permitted under our water restriction conditions).


Reserve meets suburban neighborhood

My energy was flagging, but I tried to keep up with Natasha’s stalwart pace.  The hill back to the Watsonia trail was steep going.  As we returned to the visitors’ center we opted for another alternative path, named after the caracal, a wild cat one can find here.  Happily we were done with the steep slopes of the Grey Rhebok!  With that, we were finished with our adventure at the Tygerberg Nature Reserve.


Enjoy 28 landscapes in South Africa on your desktop!

I’m pretty easy to spot on vacation; I’m the guy with a small, white, surprisingly heavy camera draped around his neck.  I bought my first Canon mirrorless camera for a 2013 trip to Alaska with my dad, and I had so much fun with it that I bought its successor, the Canon EOS-M2.  Since then I have acquired more than 10,000 snapshots!

In today’s post, I would like to share some of my favorite landscapes from South Africa with you in the form of images for your desktop “wallpaper.”  You can find the whole collection in a zip file from my Google Drive.  Each image has a resolution of 1920×1080, a common widescreen resolution for monitors (or HDTVs).  In this post, I would like to give a little explanation for why I selected each photo.


In my very first weeks at Stellenbosch University, one of my new friends made sure that I had a chance to visit the area near the city of Stellenbosch (the original campus for the university is located there).  The grounds of the Postcard Cafe really swept me away.


We visited some of the wine farms near Stellenbosch, and I enjoyed this view from the Delaire-Graff Estate.


On my first visit to Paarl, a smaller town northeast of Cape Town, I stopped by the Taal Monument, celebrating the Afrikaans language.


I felt a bit nervous about leaving the familiar area around Cape Town, but my friend Jill convinced me to run down to the true southern-most point of Africa, at Cape Agulhas.  The point itself is so rocky I settled for this nearby image instead!


On one of my visits to the Stellenbosch Campus, I took a little wander rather than brave the rush-hour traffic.  The peaceful course of the Eerste (first) River was very soothing.


My first long trip away from my new home came at Easter in 2016.  I stopped at a little farm store on my way out of the Boland via the N1, and the clouds were magical!


My visit to Karoo National Park acquainted me with the experience of viewing wildlife in their natural habitat.  Learning to slow down and enjoy the view was very rewarding here.


I simply loved the atmosphere of Graaff Reinet.  The museum featured a very long-lived grape vine that had survived a recent fungal infection.


The Big Tree at Tsitsikamma was a fun hike.  This is not one of the the big trees, but it’s an interesting looking stump.


My early morning at Knysna found me at the Heads, admiring the view of a cave on the far side of the channel.


This photo from an olive farm restaurant just north of Oudtshoorn looks north to the Swartberg Mountains.  This was the moment when I decided to try a run straight home at the end of my Eastern Cape trip.


I was on a boat with the team from the MRC SHIP program when I turned back toward land to capture this photo of Table Mountain and Devil’s Peak at sunset.


While driving to the Northern Cape, I stopped for a photo after we drove up a very steep incline, just east of Vanrhynsdorp.


I liked this picturesque koppie in Akkerendam Nature Reserve, just north of Calvinia.


When we reached the Orange River at Keimoes, I stopped to enjoy the sound of running water; one doesn’t get to hear that sound frequently here!


Augrabies Falls National Park is built around the massive ravine that the river has carved into the ground.  This image, taken just after sunrise, shows one of the wider sections of that ravine.


Quiver trees are the best.


While driving back from the Northern Cape, we paused to see rock art near the Cederberg Mountains.


I spent an afternoon at the Cape Flats Nature Reserve.  Here we see the Chemical Sciences and Life Sciences Buildings of the University of the Western Cape rising out of the flats!


In Kimberley, they call it the Big Hole for a reason.


Visiting the limestone quarry on Robben Island was a sobering experience.


Cape Point is such a dramatic place!  I didn’t think this angle would produce a comfortable image, but I love how it turned out.


The Spice Route is a fun place to shop, eat, and enjoy life.


On a day when Table Mountain features its “tablecloth,” the cable car descends from the clouds!


The grounds for Chelaya Lodge are simply lovely.  Our choir retreat took place there.


I enjoyed my short hike at Monk’s Cowl.


I didn’t expect to see much water at Golden Gate Highlands, but the dam creates a little reservoir where police officers were enjoying some canoeing time.


I cheated on this photo, since it comes from Thaba Bosiu in Lesotho; this is the only image that is not from South Africa!

I hope you enjoyed this brief tour.  I feel very lucky to have been able to travel so widely in my new home.

Legal Stuff: I am happy for others to use these images freely (including their import to Wikimedia Commons), though I should be acknowledged as the photographer. If you include these images in a product for sale, I require that you publish a link to this blog post, where potential purchasers can acquire the images for free.

Sacred sounds with the Cape Town Chamber Choir

I believe there’s a spark within each of us that turns our hearts to music.  For some, listening to beautiful (or at least catchy) tunes will be enough.  For others, though, we must try to create music, whether it comes from tapping out a beat on a makeshift drum or singing with our voices.  For some, the audience will be only shower tiles or a car interior, but others will seek to share that music with other people.  I caught this “bug” very early on, and for most of my life I have been part of one choir or another.

As I have mentioned before, I first joined the Stadskoor Tygerberg, a city choir that rehearsed quite close to my workplace in Parow.  After a while, though, I found that the group’s strong penchant to converse and rehearse in Afrikaans left me feeling like an outsider.  I am sad to say my progress in that language has been abysmally slow!  I am happier in my new role with the Stadskoor; I come to their events as a photographer and videographer now.

At the start of 2017, I auditioned to join the Cape Town Chamber Choir.  The group rehearses at the Reddam House in Green Point on Monday nights.  Coincidentally, I spend my Tuesdays at the Groote Schuur campus of the University of Cape Town, so the scheduling works out nicely.  Since I recently enjoyed my two performances with the group, I wanted to share that experience with my readers!

First, I must say that the level of musical expertise in the Chamber Choir is substantial.  At my very first rehearsal with the group, I was a bit startled to see how rapidly my section picked up the rhythms and intervals of “Exsultate Deo” by Palestrina.  I soon learned that some of the choristers had strong connections with Cape Town’s Fine Music Radio station.  I felt grateful to have succeeded in my audition; I’d definitely bumbled the sight-reading part.

I learned a lot about the personalities of people in the choir during our weekend-long retreat in March of 2017 at Chelaya Lodge.  We had a lot of fun with the fact that three of the basses are named David (I’m not the only Professor David, either).  The site for our camp was a good complement, with its quirky English decor– I particularly liked the telephone booth.


The group enjoyed some really lovely food for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.  On our final night, we had a proper braai, with boerewors and singing, of course!  The retreat was not just about fun (or food), though.  We worked on our music very intently.  At the time, the group intended a formal performance including most of our repertoire in June, so we invested a lot of effort in learning the bones of all the pieces.  The group did agree to a fun group photo while we were there:


I’ve often thought that I’m not really part of a choir until I have performed with them.  Frustratingly, that seemed to take a really long time.  Our plan for a June performance fell by the wayside since some of the pieces were proving to be rather difficult to get just right.  The group scheduled a less formal church performance during June of 2017, but I was unable to take part because I was in the United States.

The piece that seemed to be the sticking point was “Benedic anima mea Domino,” by Jaakko Mäntyjärvi.  The piece is an aggressively-timed six-part harmony.  Probably the most challenging aspect of the piece is its highly inconsistent time signature, starting in 3:4 but flipping to 5:4 for a single measure even before one has left the first line!  Along the way it pops to 9:8, 6:4, and 4:4 time.  Essentially, the piece is a challenging series of ever-changing eighth-note rhythms.  By the end of our March retreat, I was pretty impressed with the choir’s ability to tackle it, but we didn’t stay in that solid state for long as our attention moved to other pieces.

At long last, our director, Marijke de Villiers Roos, decided on a fixed date for our big show.  On Sunday, September 3, 2017, we would perform at St. George’s Cathedral, at the heart of downtown Cape Town!  I was particularly delighted because I would have the chance to visit the cathedral where the parents of J.R.R. Tolkien were married!  The lead up to the big event, though, would be very taxing.  on top of our usual Monday rehearsals, the group added a pair of half-day Sunday rehearsals on August 20 and 27.  We also added a “dress rehearsal” on Tuesday, August 29.  By the day of the performance, my energy levels were pretty heavily drained; I had served as a photographer for a Stadskoor Tygerberg concert on the first of September.


Photo courtesy of Elize Erasmus

I was very pleased with the concert we produced.  The cathedral filled up quite nicely for the show, and I loved seeing some young people near the front who were already acquainted with some of the pieces from our set of a dozen or so songs.  The concert was also my first chance to hear Nathan Julius perform (he appears on the front row of the picture above).  Nathan has a truly powerful countertenor voice.  He is one of the South Africans who have benefited from training at the Drakensberg Boys Choir School.  His concert with us was his last in Cape Town before attending Schola Cantorum in Switzerland.  To hear a male voice embrace such high, soaring notes was really unbelievable in that space!

While I was very happy with the subtlety of most of our repertoire, I must say I felt less content with “Benedic anima mea Domino.”  Perhaps our section was rushing or we were working with a slower tempo for performance, but I didn’t feel like our rhythms “clicked” as they should.  I was happy with “The Deer’s Cry” by Arvo Pärt (which requires the choir to show restraint to give a good contrast in dynamics).  For once, our “O quam gloriosum” by T.L. de Victoria sounded like we had something to celebrate!  I left the cathedral that day feeling elated.


Photo by Natasha Foley

We weren’t done performing, though!  For the next three Mondays, our choir rehearsed with special intensity because we were supporting the Cape Town Baroque Festival!  For four of the pieces presented on the opening night of the festival, specializing in the operas of the Baroque period, our choir provided the choral support.

It was a complete change of pace from the concert at St. George’s.  Our parts had us singing of the joys of love Semele enjoys in the heavens, impersonating shepherds extolling the natural loving to be found in peaceful groves, singing in French of the peaceful forests of the New World, or finally giving stern direction to the cupids guarding Dido’s tomb.  I know I really admired the voices of our soloists, and it was a genuine treat to be conducted by Erik Dippenaar, who can infuse an amazing amount of enthusiasm into the movements of his head (he conducts with his head while both his hands are busy accompanying on the spinet).

In short, I have loved singing with the Cape Town Chamber Choir.  I hope that I can keep up with the group, even as my travel schedule kicks back into gear!  Making it to rehearsal each week can be blocked when I am teaching workshops and contributing research seminars outside Cape Town.  I will just have to do my best.  Singing with these excellent performers is very rewarding!

Reconstruction of a Train Wreck: How Priming Research Went off the Rails

The concept of “priming” has gained a lot of adherents in psychological research, but is it real? If I lead a group of students to think about the challenges faced by the elderly, do the students walk more slowly because of that “priming?” Several independent studies have produced significant p-values and were published in high-impact journals. As is common in research, however, these studies used relatively few subjects. A recent meta-analysis that attempts to combine the data among these studies, however, concludes that the significant findings in the individual studies were illusory. This negative result was published to relatively little fanfare.

The example from “priming” is illustrative of a greater problem for reproducible research.  Under-powered studies are the norm. Academic journals have a clear bias toward positive findings, and negative results frequently fail to be published!


Authors:  Ulrich Schimmack, Moritz Heene, and Kamini Kesavan

We computed the R-Index for studies cited in Chapter 4 of Kahneman’s book “Thinking Fast and Slow.” This chapter focuses on priming studies, starting with John Bargh’s study that led to Kahneman’s open email.  The results are eye-opening and jaw-dropping.  The chapter cites 12 articles and 11 of the 12 articles have an R-Index below 50.  The combined analysis of 31 studies reported in the 12 articles shows 100% significant results with average (median) observed power of 57% and an inflation rate of 43%.  The R-Index is 14. This result confirms Kahneman’s prediction that priming research is a train wreck and readers of his book “Thinking Fast and Slow” should not consider the presented studies as scientific evidence that subtle cues in their environment can have strong effects on their behavior outside their awareness.


In 2011, Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman…

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Furrier Cats

When I include Fourier Transform in my lectures, my explanation is just about as non-technical as can be. In her post, Dr. Scaife demonstrates convolution by manipulations in the transformed image of an adorable cat!


Last week I gave an introductory lecture on imaging with radio interferometers. I started off with a Python demonstration of Fourier filtering using cat pictures, which seemed pretty popular and lead to one of my fellow lecturers coining the term “Furrier Cats” (this is genius and I wish I’d thought of it).

Since it was so well received, I thought I’d repeat it here. If you’re already au fait with Fourier transforms then this is perhaps not for you, but for all those new starters out there who (1) would like a visual introduction to Fourier analysis and (2) like cat pictures, read on.


This description was inspired by the ever insightful xkcd comic strip, and in particular this cartoon:

fourier_xkcd https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/fourier.jpg

Which lead to an enjoyable afternoon for me, looking at cat pictures on google and selecting one that I thought would illustrate the points I wanted to…

View original post 535 more words

You can be an academic YouTube STAR!

Many universities have begun exploring the use of the Internet for sharing academic coursework, either via “flipped classrooms” or Massive Open On-Line Courses (MOOCs).  Over the last year, I have uploaded approximately 50 videos to my YouTube Channel, most of them academic lectures.  I hope that I have learned something in this process that will you to publish your work more broadly, as well!

I would start by explaining that my lectures come from multiple purposes and even multiple university campuses.  My longest-running series of lectures came from a weekly seminar on topics of my own choosing called “the Useful Hour.”  I produced fourteen of these sessions (with help from Brigitte Glanzmann when I had to be away for a week), though I only started recording them on video for the last twelve.  I recorded the eight-session bioinformatics module from our division’s B.Sc. Honours program as a trial run for creating a “flipped classroom” in future years (a model where students watch lectures outside of class and spend in-class time working exercises).  More recently, I collaborated with the H3Africa BioNet to produce a four-lecture module on Gene Expression.  From time to time, I help the Tygerberg Postgraduate Student Council by recording a lecturer.  Each of these experiences has had its own lessons to convey.

The technical aspects of recording a video are generally easy enough that even a Ph.D. can do it!  Today’s budget camcorders capture more detail with better sound under lousier conditions than did cameras that cost five times as much even five years ago.  Best of all, one no longer needs to wrestle with tapes and analog-to-digital transfer loss.  Today we simply pull the Secure Digital card out of the camcorder and plug it into the socket on a laptop, where the video files are instantly accessible.  Of course, many people record video using digital cameras or cell phones.  Preparing videos for upload to a public server, however, is frequently more difficult than the initial capture.  I’ll talk about these aspects below.

Focus on the speaker


Speak softly, and carry a big stick!

We must start with video that is worth watching.  Far too frequently, I see that people recording lectures focus on the slides rather than the person who is delivering the lecture.  Reading text from video is generally unpleasant, and the reality is that looking at people fires circuits in our brains that academic content does not.  Video is a format designed to capture motion; it is a notoriously inefficient method for capturing still images, though!  Keeping the camera on the speaker, then, makes more sense.  This comes with some caveats:

  1. Viewers still need to be able to see the slides.  My answer has been to produce a PDF from the PowerPoint or other presentation software, since almost everyone has the ability to view PDFs on any platform.  I post the PDF to a shared directory on Google Drive, and I include the URL leading to the PDF in the YouTube description.
  2. From time to time a researcher will point to a particular part of a slide.  This is probably problematic on video; if he or she has used a laser pointer, the spot of light will either be too bright (green) or too dim (red) to appear well on video.  A moving mouse pointer might be better.  If the speaker is old-school (like me), he or she may use a stick to point at the slide instead.  This can create a problem of the lecturer “blooming” as he or she moves away from the bright field created by the projector into the relative dark outside the projector’s light.
  3. How will a person watching the video know to advance to the next slide?  Hopefully the speaker says “next slide” out loud.  When my parents recorded my brother’s and my first efforts to read aloud, they told us to bang a spoon against a mug to produce an audible chime with each page turn.  That was even more fun than reading!
  4. Software is publicly available to integrate the slowly-changing slide video with the quickly-moving speaker video.  Screencast-O-Matic will produce videos of up to fifteen minutes in its free version.  This approach will guarantee that your viewers are seeing the same slide the lecturer is seeing as the talk progresses.

Screencast-O-Matic insets your image atop the slides you are presenting.

Light and detail go hand in hand

As I alluded above, lighting is frequently a problem in academic lecture videos.  We frequently keep our lecture halls very dim in order to make the slides stand out as much as possible.  In a large venue, you may have a spotlight on the speaker, which will help.  In a medium venue, you may have a light in the ceiling directly above the speaker, which can make him or her appear somewhat ghoulish.  The more you rely upon zoom, the less light will reach your camera!  Keep that camera close.  If you can open the blinds on a window so that your speaker is lit, you will have a more interesting video.  Try to find ways to position your camera between the light and the subject (without casting a shadow, of course).  Never forget that the projected slides are much brighter than the subject you are trying to record.  If even the corner of the projected image appears in-shot, expect the speaker to become a flat silhouette.

Today’s cameras can record in very high resolutions, such as 1080p (the same as your HD television).  If lighting is truly problematic, you may want to consider forcing your high-resolution camera to a lower resolution, such as 720p; this may allow it to combine intensities across multiple transistors for each pixel.  Similarly, you should expect that a camera with a larger “retina” will outperform one with a tiny CCD in low light.  To put this in plain terms, do not expect a cell phone to produce quality video in semi-darkness, no matter the name on the label.  That said, I have observed that my “mirrorless” Canon EOS-M2 is inferior to my much cheaper Canon VIXIA HF R62 for video.  The lenses and electronics of the EOS-M2 are optimized for photos, not video.

Privacy issues are a big deal

Ensure that your audience knows that the lecture is being recorded.  Bad things can happen when a person does not want his or her image to be on-line and somebody else decides that they shall be.  Imagine how much worse this becomes when that member of the audience is a minor!  Nobody should be forced into public view because he or she attends a talk.

We frequently expect a period of questions and answers at the end of a lecture (and sometimes in the middle).  A novice camera operator may automatically swing to capture the questioner in action.  Depending on the situation, this part of the video may need to be truncated outright due to privacy issues.

Video is big and hard to handle well


I use my hands a lot.

When I upgraded to my Canon VIXIA HF R62 from a JVC Everio (GZ-HM30AU), I had a rude shock.  My old camera had captured 720p video in very manageable MTS files, but the new camera captured 1080p video in massive MP4 volumes.  I used a 16 GB SDHC card for videos.  The cameras assumed that no file should be allowed to be larger than 4 GB (linked to 32-bit computing).  With the new camera, I consume 4 GB every 33 minutes!  At a couple of long events I recorded, I found that I needed more storage than the 16 GB card could provide.  I solved that problem by upgrading to a 64 GB card.

Naturally, keeping the raw footage of every event I video is not practical.  If each of the 50 videos I posted to YouTube over the last year produced 66 minutes of raw footage, I would need to archive 400 GB for just this period!  Similarly, posting these videos to YouTube would be a problem.  Each hour would span two files, which would require my viewers to watch part ‘A’ and then queue up part ‘B’ immediately afterwards; many would just skip watching the end, humans being humans.  To compound the problem, I live in South Africa, which means my upload speeds to network servers are dreadfully slow.  My home DSL line, for example, achieves 0.3 Mbps.  I have uploaded one GB before, but it takes hours.  In any case, I will probably need to truncate a bit of time off the front and the back of the video.  In short, I need to do video editing.


While semi-professionals might opt for Adobe Premiere and those who “think different” will break out iMovie, I am a bioinformaticist, and I like software that lets me master high-quality videos with a minimum of fuss and bother.  I use ffmpeg, a very powerful suite of tools that one can use directly on the command line.  Most of the time, I am (a) concatenating my source video files into one movie, (b) including only a middle section, and (c) writing a more compact movie from the source materials.  To use a recent example, I have two input files; I write their names into a file called list.txt:

file mvi_0031.mp4
file mvi_0032.mp4

Next, I run a command line that looks like this:

ffmpeg.exe -ss 00:00:15 -f concat -safe 0 -i list.txt -t 00:50:00 -c:v libx264 -preset slow -c:a copy output.mp4

In order, the options do the following:

  • -ss specifies where in the combined files ffmpeg will start the output video (in this example, after the first fifteen seconds).
  • -ff concat -safe 0 -i list.txt specifies that the files listed in list.txt should be combined into one video and that they are formatted the same way.
  • -t specifies the total duration of the video to be encoded (in this example, exactly fifty minutes).
  • -c:v libx264 -preset slow specifies that my output video will be MPEG 4 pt 10, a very common format for storing video (and one that YouTube knows how to read).
  • -c:a copy directs ffmpeg not to re-compress the audio, making it sound just as nice in the output as it did in the original.

The ffmpeg software is very good at reducing the size of videos without compromising its quality.  I find that I can represent an hour-long lecture in a two GB 1080p video, rather than the nearly 8 GB of source footage.  If I am filled with caffeine for my lecture, the video size increases a bit (more motion requires more bits for accurate representation).

These smaller videos can then be uploaded to my YouTube account.  Happily, if you have a Gmail account (or if you use a different email address to log into Google Services), you can simply use that login for YouTube.  One clicks the arrow pointing up, and a screen will appear to which you drag your video file.  All done, right?

No job is finished until the paperwork is through!

Meta-data is key to your video reaching an audience, and too few people spend adequate time on this step.  I would call your attention to both the “Basic Info” and “Advanced Settings” pages that video authors can complete.  Of course, you should enter a paragraph of information in the basic description blank.  Ask yourself what web searches should find your video, and be sure you include those key terms in the text.  For good measure, add them again in the keywords section!  I like to include the university name where the recording took place.  Hopefully the social media minders for these schools will highlight your video to their large audiences.  YouTube will sniff the video for still frames that might be representative for the video.  I always try to pick the one in which I do not look like I’m suffering a fit of some sort.

Advanced Settings has more options to help users find your video.  Pick a category; generally my lectures fall in the “Science and Technology” category.  Be sure to enter a video location.  Google will translate your information to GPS coordinates so people can find videos shot near particular locations.  Enter a recording date, and select the language of your video (especially if you are not using English).

In many cases, you will have several videos that belong together as a set.  When I produced a short biography and four videos on Gene Expression for H3A BioNet, I also created a “playlist” that contained all five videos in the correct order.  Remember, if you can hook a viewer into watching one of your videos, you might be able to retain their interest for a few more!  Ideally, people will like your stuff enough that they subscribe to your YouTube channel, receiving a notification every time you post a new video.  You will be launched on your next career as a YouTube star!

Bloemfontein: On the trail of Tolkien

An index to this series appears on the first post.

August 13, 2017

Why would any famous son or daughter of a city be ignored? J.R.R. Tolkien, the author of The Hobbit and of Lord of the Rings, was born in Bloemfontein. Trying to learn a bit more about his origins in this city, however, led in interesting directions.

I should start by explaining that J.R.R. Tolkien was born to Arthur and Mabel Tolkien, British citizens. They had been drawn to Bloemfontein by the offer of a lucrative banking position for Arthur. Mabel joined her fiancé in Cape Town via a three week journey by ship just after her 21st birthday.  They were married in the cathedral there on 16 April, 1891, with a honeymoon in the Atlantic suburb of Sea Point.  Immediately thereafter they took the long train run to Bloemfontein.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on January 3, 1892; a year before, his mother had been in England!  During 1892, Bloemfontein was the capital of a Boer Republic called the Orange Free State. The Union of South Africa was still eighteen years in the future.  Mabel Tolkien didn’t think much of her new home, writing to her family of the “Owlin’ Wilderness!  Horrid Waste!”  She tolerated it for her husband, who seemed completely absorbed in his new position as manager at the Bank of Africa.


The Tolkien family in Bloemfontein, November, 1892 (I first saw this picture in Humphrey Carpenter’s biography.)

I had read that the Tolkiens had been part of the Anglican church in Bloemfontein, so I spent my Sunday morning visiting the cathedral (along with its Catholic neighbor). It was Confirmation Sunday, and the service had all the special elements one might expect. The bishop came to the service in order to interact with the Confirmation class. After the service, he posed for photographs, and he even took a photo with me!


I met the Right Reverend Dintoe Letloenyane!

Seeing the cathedral after a “high” church ceremony was a bit mystical. Smoke from the incense drifted in the sunlight pouring through the high windows. The Cathedral is dedicated to St. Andrew and the angel Michael.  It was built in 1866 and substantially expanded in 1883 (the old nave is the new one’s choir and chancel).


Looking from the new nave into the old

I took some photographs throughout the cathedral, but my target stood close to the entrance. While a baptistry in a Baptist church is essentially a bathtub large enough to immerse multiple adults, the Anglican church baptizes infants, and the white bowl was fitted with a metal cover suspended from the ceiling. I was pleased to learn that the city had memorialized J.R.R. Tolkien with a plaque celebrating his baptism on January 31, 1892. (The plaque was added on November 11th of 1992, the centenary year.)


The baptistry was bathed in light!

The early history of J.R.R. Tolkien is a tragic one. His mother Mabel had tired of enduring Bloemfontein’s harsh summers, and she and J.R.R. Tolkien (and his younger brother, Hillary Arthur Reuel Tolkien) returned to the U.K. in 1895. Only a year later, his father, who had stayed behind to complete his bank contract, died of rheumatic fever. Knowing that Arthur Tolkien was buried in Bloemfontein, I perused the cathedral’s garden of memory, but I did not see any cenotaphs for that period. I later learned from a member of the church that Arthur Tolkien had been buried in the large cemetery on the other side of the hill.

If the baptism and burial aspects were the ceremonial aspects of the Tolkiens, could we find non-spiritual evidence of the Tolkiens? Sadly, the house where the Tolkiens lived (included in the premises of the Bank of Africa in Maitland Street) was destroyed in a flood during the 1920s. It was at this house where J.R.R. Tolkien, then a toddler, was bitten by a tarantula; his nurse sucked out the poison.  The National monuments Council issued a historic marker for J.R.R. Tolkien’s birthplace, but you will not find it at the former site of his home! Instead, one must visit the Hobbit Hotel, located at 19 President Steyn Street.


I was surprised to learn that these could be moved!

The proprietors of the hotel have not gone overboard with the Tolkien theme. Each room has a needlepoint sign, naming the room after a particular character from the series. I paused for a moment at the signboard for Frodo’s Room, because who wouldn’t?  The hotel offers a little library of books with a tree top-level porch nearby. Yes, the hotel does have the Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings trilogy, though they are on display downstairs, where they are closely watched since their hardbound copies vanished. I really liked their garden pub, with a distinctive tree-wrapped bar.


It’s a bar, but it’s it’s also like a woodland realm!

In short, J.R.R. Tolkien is not forgotten in Bloemfontein. His memory is cherished in at least two places. I would certainly encourage the city to build on this beginning, though. I know I am not the only reader to feel so strongly about his importance!