Professors receive a lot of requests from international students for admission to post-graduate training. In South Africa, that training could be for “Honours” (a one-year course), an “M.Sc.” (a two-year Master’s program), or a “Ph.D.” (typically three years, post Master’s). For students changing from one country to another, however, the question of “equivalencies” is key. Could a four-year B.Sc. (Bachelor’s of Science) from Egypt, for example, be treated as the same thing as a three year B.Sc. followed by one year of Honours in South Africa? This post gives an example of the questions I asked as I recently tried to determine the right level of admissions for an international student.
The international office for my university had declared that a student’s four-year degree was certainly equivalent to a three-year B.Sc. in South Africa, but it left to the department’s discretion whether or not Honours training was required before a M.Sc. To support the department’s decision, I decided to build an interview from questions that would delineate the limits of the candidate’s knowledge. I used the roster of topics for the Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics 2017 Honours as a guide. I used the number of didactic training days for each topic as a weight:
|Molecular Biology||8 days|
|Cell Biology||8 days|
|Scientific Communication||2 days|
I also gave some consideration to the M.Sc. project the student would pursue in my laboratory. In this case, the work related to the reproducibility of mass spectrometry experiments. After pondering before my word processor, I selected these questions for the candidate’s interview:
|1||Cell Biology||What biological processes are described by the Central Dogma of molecular biology? Walk us through each.|
|2||Biochemistry||What do we describe with Michaelis-Menten kinetics?|
|3||Computer Science||How does iteration differ from recursion?|
|4||Analytical Chemistry||By what property does a mass spectrometer separate ions?|
|5||Medicine||In HIV treatment, what is the purpose of a “protease inhibitor?”|
|6||Biostatistics||What role does the “null hypothesis” play in Student’s t-test?|
|7||Medicine||What type of pathogen causes tuberculosis?|
|8||Genetics||What is the purpose of a plasmid vector in cloning? What features do such vectors commonly contain?|
|9||Cell Biology||What cellular process includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase?|
|10||Mathematics||The log ratio (base 2) between two numbers is 3. What is the linear ratio?|
|11||Immunology||What is an antibody, and what is its relationship to an antigen? What are the major families of antibodies?|
|12||Computer Science||What is the purpose of an Application Programming Interface (API) or “library?”|
|13||Biochemistry||What do we describe as the secondary structure of a protein?|
|14||Genetics||Of what components are nucleic acids constructed?|
|15||Biostatistics||What is a Coefficient of Variation?|
|16||Mathematics||If I divide the circumference of a circle by its diameter, what value do I get?|
|17||Immunology||What type of immune cell is the primary factory for antibodies?|
The interview, conducted via Skype, lasted approximately an hour. As I asked each question, I gave the question orally and pasted the text of that question into the chat session. Remember that as an American, I have a “foreign” accent for the English-speaking population of Africa! I did not want that to be a factor in the candidate’s performance. I was grateful that our division’s Honours program coordinator, Dr. Jennifer Jackson, accompanied me during the interview, both to monitor that the candidate was treated fairly and to ask follow-up questions of her own.
Why did it take an hour to answer these questions? As is customary in post-graduate education, each answer opened the door to a series of other questions. A student may give an answer that covers only part of the question, and the follow-up will poke into the omitted area to see if it is an area of weakness, almost like a dentist with an explorer goes after a darkened area of a tooth to see if it represents dental decay!
Another factor that I want to measure for students is the degree of integration that they have achieved in their educations. To recognize that a word has been mentioned in class is not sufficient; I need to see that students understand how key concepts relate to each other. This synthesis is sometimes hard to evaluate, but it’s important. A student who doesn’t understand how a concept integrates with others will not be able to apply the principle or recognize when it should come into play.
Before the readers of this blog begin showering me with applications, I need to emphasize that the questions I framed for this particular interview are not the questions I would ask of another candidate. The ones above were chosen to reflect the background of the candidate, the diploma program to which he or she had applied, and the nature of the project I had in mind.
I hope that this post will help you decide whether or not you are ready to plunge into post-graduate education!